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生鲜乳收购站建设与管理技术规范
信息员: 农畜产品质量安全监管科  来源: 日期:2018/1/11 10:03:47 人气:59                             加入收藏 评论:0 

DB11

ICS 65.040.20

B 93

备案号:27903-2010

DB11/T 708—2010

生鲜乳收购站建设与管理技术规范

Technical specifications about construction and management

for raw milk receiving station

2010-04-21 发布 2010-08-01 实施

北  京  市  地  方  标 准

北京市质量技术监督局 发布

DB11/T 708—2010

I

目 次

前 言 ·································································································································································· II

1 范围 ···································································································································································1

2 规范性引用文件 ················································································································································1

3 术语和定义 ························································································································································1

4 建设要求 ····························································································································································1

4.1 选址 ·····························································································································································1

4.2 布局 ·····························································································································································1

4.3 功能区设置 ·················································································································································1

5 设备与维护 ························································································································································2

5.1 机械设备 ·····················································································································································2

5.2 设备维护 ·····················································································································································2

5.3 附属设施 ·····················································································································································2

6 卫生防疫 ····························································································································································2

6.1 环境 ·····························································································································································3

6.2 人员 ·····························································································································································3

6.3 卫生控制 ·····················································································································································3

6.4 污染物排放 ·················································································································································3

6.5 突发事件 ·····················································································································································3

6.6 其他 ·····························································································································································3

7 管理 ···································································································································································3

7.1 质量检测 ·····················································································································································3

7.2 监督管理 ·····················································································································································3

7.3 操作规程 ·····················································································································································3

7.4 从业人员 ·····················································································································································4

7.5 规章制度 ·····················································································································································4

DB11/T 708—2010

II

前 言

本标准按照 GB/T 1.1—2009 给出的规则起草。

本标准由北京市农业局提出。

本标准由北京市农业标准化技术委员会养殖业分会归口。

本标准由北京市农业局组织实施。

本标准起草单位:北京市畜牧兽医总站。

本标准主要起草人:陈余、谢实勇、史文清、韦海涛、贾亚雄、云鹏、苗燕、薛振华、蒋益民。

DB11/T 708—2010

1

生鲜乳收购站建设与管理技术规范

1 范围

本标准规定了生鲜乳收购站建设要求、设备与维护、卫生防疫、管理等方面的要求。

本标准适用于北京地区生鲜乳收购站建设和管理。

2 规范性引用文件

下列文件对于本文件的应用是必不可少的。凡是注日期的引用文件,仅注日期的版本适用于本文件。

凡是不注日期的引用文件,其最新版本(包括所有的修改单)适用于本文件。

GB 5749 生活饮用水卫生标准

GB 6914 生鲜牛乳收购标准

GB 16548 病害动物和病害动物产品生物安全处理规程

GB/T 20014.8 良好农业规范 第 8 部分:奶牛控制点与符合性规范

GBJ 39 村镇建筑设计防火规范

GBJ 52 工业与民用供电系统设计规范

NY/T 388 畜禽场环境质量标准

NY/T 1168 畜禽粪便无害化处理技术规范

乳品质量安全监督管理条例

生鲜乳生产收购管理办法

3 术语和定义

下列术语和定义适用于本文件。

3.1

生鲜乳 raw milk

正常饲养的、无传染病和乳房炎的健康奶牛乳房内挤出的常乳。

3.2

生鲜乳收购站 raw milk receiving station

符合《乳品质量安全监督管理条例》和《生鲜乳生产收购管理办法》条件要求并依法取得所在地县

级人民政府畜牧兽医主管部门核发的生鲜乳收购许可证的生产单位。

4 建设要求

4.1 选址

生鲜乳收购站应按照所在地奶源分布情况,依据方便奶畜养殖者、促进规模化养殖的原则,建在地

势平坦干燥、排水良好、水源充足、水质符合 GB 5749 规定的地方。应与饲养场、屠宰厂或其它容易导

致生鲜乳受到污染的污染源保持相应的安全卫生与防疫距离。

4.2 布局

奶站建筑面积应在 100 m

2 以上,应有专用的运输通道,避免和污道交叉,应具有更衣室、消毒室、

检测室、卫生间及其他收购服务的必需场所。养殖场(小区)内的生鲜乳收购站应建在场区的上风处或

中部侧面,距离牛舍 50 m 以上。

4.3 功能区设置

4.3.1 基本要求

DB11/T 708—2010

2

应有消毒区、待挤区、挤奶厅、贮奶间、化验室、设备间、消毒通道、更衣室、办公室等功能区,

挤奶厅的地面铺设耐磨防滑瓷砖、墙面光滑,所有建筑物的屋顶、墙壁及地面应采用无毒、无异味、不

透水、易清洗的浅色防腐材料建造。

4.3.2 消毒区

待挤区前设立消毒区,每班奶牛进入待挤区前应经过消毒。

4.3.3 待挤区

面积大小应与挤奶位数相适应,通风、排水良好,有条件的可配备降温设施。

4.3.4 挤奶厅

面积大小应与挤奶位数相适应。奶牛进出挤奶厅的通道应通畅,通道宽度应为 95 cm~105 cm,通

道栏杆无尖锐突出物。下水道应保持通畅,并安装便于清洗的防返味装置。墙壁应便于清洗和消毒。

4.3.5 贮奶间

应通风、防尘,有条件的可安装监控摄像头。挤奶厅和贮奶间相连接地面应硬化、排水良好。

4.3.6 设备间

应留有足够的空间以供配电、真空泵、冷却设备以及其他配套设备的安装和操作。

5 设备与维护

5.1 机械设备

5.1.1 冷却设备

冷却、冷藏等设备应与收奶量相适应,制冷能力应在挤奶结束后 2 h 内达到 0 ℃~4 ℃。

5.1.2 挤奶设备

挤奶设备选型应符合相关要求,并与泌乳牛头数相适应,设备应易清洗消毒。

5.1.3 贮奶设备

贮奶罐应采用光滑、非吸湿性、抗腐蚀、无毒的材料制成,保温层厚度应不低于 50 mm,密封良好,

内设搅拌装置。

5.1.4 检测设备

应有与检测项目相适应的化验、计量、检测仪器设备。应配有比重计、酸度计、乳房炎快速检测仪、

酒精阳性乳检测仪、乳成分测定仪等。

5.1.5 生鲜乳运输设备

罐体应保温隔热、防腐蚀、防震荡、便于清洗。

5.1.6 配套设备

应配备发电及提供 70 ℃~80 ℃热水的设备。

5.2 设备维护

应建立维护制度,根据设备要求定期进行维护。

5.3 附属设施

5.3.1 防火设施

应符合 GBJ 39 的规定。

5.3.2 供电设施

应符合 GBJ 52 的规定。

5.3.3 消毒设施

应配备场地、牛舍、人员、牛体、设备等消毒设施。

5.3.4 其他辅助设施

应配备必要的消防、防蚊蝇、防鼠、警示标识等设施。

6 卫生防疫

DB11/T 708—2010

3

6.1 环境

收购站环境整洁,无恶性异味。室内通风良好,空气质量符合 NY/T 388 的规定。粪污无害化处理

设施符合 NY/T 1168 的要求。

6.2 人员

6.2.1 每个奶站至少 2 名质检人员,有相关部门核发的收奶员资格证书,持证上岗。

6.2.2 质检人员每年应接受培训和考核。

6.2.3 工作人员进入生鲜乳收购站应穿工作服和工作鞋、戴工作帽,清洗双手,并经过消毒。

6.2.4 工作服、工作鞋以及工作帽应每天消毒。

6.3 卫生控制

6.3.1 生产过程控制应按照 GB/T 20014.8 的规定。

6.3.2 挤奶厅、贮奶间只能用于生产、冷却和贮存生鲜乳,不得堆放任何化学物品和杂物。

6.3.3 生鲜乳在挤奶、冷却、贮存、运输过程中,应在密闭条件下操作,不得与有毒、有害、挥发性

物质接触。

6.3.4 收购站内不得吸烟,并张贴相关警示标志。

6.3.5 清洗和消毒

6.3.5.1 挤奶厅与相关设施在每班次奶牛挤奶后应彻底清扫干净,用高压水枪冲洗,并进行喷雾消毒。

6.3.5.2 奶桶、奶杯等用后彻底清洗和消毒。如果清洗消毒后超过 96 h 未使用,再次使用前应重新清

洗和消毒。

6.3.5.3 收购站周围环境每周应用 2 %氢氧化钠溶液或其它高效低毒消毒剂消毒一次。

6.3.5.4 站内排污池和下水道等每月用漂白粉消毒一次。

6.3.6 运输与贮存

6.3.6.1 生鲜乳运输车辆应取得生鲜乳准运证明,并持有生鲜乳交接单。生鲜乳运输罐在起运前应加

铅封,运输途中不得向奶罐内加入任何物质。

6.3.6.2 贮奶罐外部应保持清洁、干净。交奶后,贮奶罐应及时清洗消毒并将罐内的水排净。奶泵、

奶管、节门应定期通刷、清洗,每周 2 次。

6.4 污染物排放

不合格奶、污水无害化处理应按 GB 16548 的规定执行。污染物排放应符合环保部门的相关要求。

6.5 突发事件

突发性传染病应急措施应按照 GB/T 20014.8 的规定执行。

6.6 其他

收购站内不得饲养其他动物。

7 管理

7.1 质量检测

应按照《乳品质量安全监督管理条例》对生鲜乳进行常规检测。收购的生鲜乳应按照收购时间和采

样编号留存样品,冷冻保存至少 10 d,便于质量溯源和责任追究,经检测合格的乳可以出售。

下列生鲜乳不得收购:

1) 经检测不符合健康标准或者未经检验检疫合格的奶畜产的。

2) 奶畜产犊 7 d 内的初乳,但以初乳为原料从事乳制品生产的除外。

3) 在规定用药期和休药期内的奶畜产的。

4) 添加其他物质和其他不符合乳品质量安全国家标准的。

7.2 监督管理

生鲜乳收购站监督检查和不合格奶问题处理参照《生鲜乳生产收购管理办法》执行。

7.3 操作规程

DB11/T 708—2010

4

7.3.1 待挤奶牛健康检查

经检查发现有下列情况之一的奶牛不得入挤奶厅:

—— 正在使用抗菌药物治疗以及不到规定的停药期的奶牛;

—— 产犊 7 d 内的奶牛;

—— 患有乳房炎的奶牛;

—— 患有结核病、布鲁氏菌病及其他传染性疾病的奶牛。

7.3.2 乳房清洁与消毒

挤奶前应先用 35 ℃~45 ℃温水清洁乳房、乳头,然后用专用药液药浴乳头后擦干。药浴液应现

用现配,并保证有效的药液浓度。

7.3.3 挤奶前乳样检查

手工将头三把奶挤到专用容器中,检查是否有凝块、絮状物或水样物。乳样正常的奶牛方可上机挤

奶;乳样异常时应及时报告兽医,并对该头奶牛单独挤奶,挤出的乳汁单独存放,不得混入正常生鲜乳

中。

7.3.4 挤奶过程

应迅速将奶杯稳妥地套在乳头上,使奶杯略微前倾,挤奶套杯时应避免空气进入杯组中。出奶较少

时应对乳房进行自上而下地按摩,防止空挤。挤奶过程中应观察奶流,必要时调整奶杯组的位置。

7.3.5 挤奶结束

应在关闭集乳器真空 2 s~3 s 后再移去奶杯,避免过度挤奶。挤奶结束后,应再次进行乳头药浴。

7.4 从业人员

7.4.1 健康条件

应有健康合格证,每年至少应体检一次,并有健康档案。

7.4.2 培训和教育

7.4.2.1 从事生鲜乳化验检测的人员应经培训合格,熟悉生鲜乳生产质量控制及相关的检验检测技术。

7.4.2.2 应对员工进行定期的卫生安全培训和教育,增强质量安全观念。

7.5 规章制度

7.5.1 管理制度

应建立完善的管理制度,包括卫生保障、质量安全保障、挤奶操作规程、化学品管理、运输制度等。

7.5.2 记录与追溯制度

7.5.2.1 应建立生鲜乳收购、销售、检测记录,并保留 2 年。

7.5.2.2 生鲜乳收购记录应包括下列内容:收购站名称、收购许可证编号、畜主姓名、单次收购量、

收购日期和地点等。

7.5.2.3 生鲜乳销售记录应包括下列内容:生鲜乳装载量、装运地、运输车辆牌照及准运证明、承运

人姓名、装运时间、装运时生鲜乳温度、销售单位名称等。

7.5.3 检验化验制度

7.5.3.1 设立生鲜乳质量检测室。配备经培训合格的检验人员。

7.5.3.2 检测仪器应有有效的计量检定证书。

7.5.3.3 每批次生鲜乳留样,样品保留时间不低于 72 h。

7.5.3.4 生鲜乳检测记录应包括下列内容:检测人员、检测项目、检测结果、检测时间、留样方式、

留样保存条件等。


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